History Of Jari Industry
The jari is ancestral Industry and no body know when first jari was manufactured and which is its birth place. from citation in Vedas, Ramayana,Mahabharat and Samhitas it can be concluded that it is an ancient industry of India and as there is no mention about it in old books of foreign countries so its birth place is also India.
It is oftenly claimed, India Learned this art of manufacturing jari from Mohamedans but it is not true as there is mention about Zari cloth in the voyage of Magasthenis and various other western literature. The origin and existence of Jari Industry dates back to ancient time but it reached it's zenith in Moghul period, it is believed.
In the Medieval period, under the pantronage of Moghul Emperors and Princely protection, the indusrty was well settled and ad also acquired export market in the west. Surat, at that time known as "CHORASI BUNDER NO VAVTO" was having sea connections with almost all major countries of the world. During period of Moghul and thereafter, Surat was the largest and important port on west cost of India.
In 1614, The British - East India Company came to Surat, at it was the business, commercial and industrial center on West coast of India. East India Company first established their factory in Surat. Jari being an article of wear and ornamentation, it was very much liked by the European Community. Thus the port of Surat played a decisive role in establishment of Jari Industry.
Surat at that time was not only famous for its Jari Industry, but also reputed for pure silk cloth popularly known as Gaji Silk, and Mashru, Jewellery, Cotton clothing from surrounding districts. The other handicrafts of Surat were Ivory carving work, Sandalwood engraving work, Brass and other inlay work on wood, Lacquer work etc.
In Moghul days, Surat was a prosperous port which was connected by road with Agra having established heavy trade between the two cities. The people from divert races from varios parts of country were attracted to do business and establish industry and they settled in Surat.
Besides from trading center, the port of Surat was also an important center for jari for pilgrims who visited during to and fro voyages of Haj. The pilgrims were Tanchhoi, Gold borders, Alluring Jari Embroideries and other various handicrafts.
This regulas patronage of Haji, Sheikh and Moghul kings combined to foster classes of artisans and craftman who turned out beautiful and artistically designed finished product of Silver thread and Gold thread for producing beautiful brocades, borders and embroideries.
Prior to Moghul period exports of jari thread was there but during Moghul regime and early British rule it has reached its peak. During this period Surat was popularly known as Jari City.
To be on safe side, it can be said 95% of the artisans of the finished products known as raw materials for textile industry are hindu and that too from only one backward jari community known as RANA. They produced all type of raw marerial in Jari for use by its other ancillary industry like machine embroidery, hath-ari work, machine ari work, Tarkam embroidery, Jardoshi emboidery, hand-loom weaving, jacquard weaving, tanchhoi weaving, jari- malmal weaving, panetar and so on. These ancillary industry situated throughot whole of India. Every town and village have a small unit carrying on its manufacture activities. All this anacillary industry product are jari product but while exporting are not classified as Jari product.
Like other industries jari Industry also has faced ups and downs and struggled to survive. premitive manufacture remained as Hindu Origin and other ancillary industry were developed and mastered by various sect including Hindu, Muslim, Parsi, Christian, Sikh....
The Government desires to give protection to this industry but due to secrecy nature of industry, the artisans does not help the desire to be materialized. On the other hand Government is giving promotion to exports by allowing drawback on copper content in Jari. At other State and Central Government is collecting heavy tax on raw materials and intermediates used by the Industry. The Government should consider refund of this also like drawback so as to enable exporter of our country to stand in keem cut-throat competition in International Market.